Intership Canada Ltd. | Glossary
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A service in addition to usual liner service, normally with an added cost. Such kind of services include packing, loading, storage, etc.

An accounting concept. It is a gradual increase by addition over a period of time and is a way of recognizing that an expense (or revenue) and the related liability (or asset) can increase over time and not as signaled by an explicit cash transaction.

When a bill of lading is accepted or signed by a shipper or shipper’s agent without protest, the shipper is said to acquiesce to the terms, giving a silent form of consent.

According to value.

A customs duty which is a percentage made upon the value of goods.

Bill of lading freight charged on goods of very high value at so much percent on the declared value of the goods.

A notice sent to a local or foreign buyer advising that shipment has gone forward and containing details of packing, routing, etc. A copy of the invoice is usually enclosed and sometimes, if desired, a copy of the bill of lading.

The bank which advises the seller that a letter of credit has been opened in his favor by the buyer, however, the advising bank does not necessarily guarantee payment.

A person authorized to transact business for and in the name of another person or company.

A type of freight forwarder who specializes in air cargo. Refer to Freight Forwarder or Forwarder.

The air waybill (also called air consignment note) is the forwarding agreement or carrying agreement between shipper and air carrier and is obtained from the airline used to ship the goods in question. Air waybills are issued only in nonnegotiable form.

A freight rate applying, with certain restrictions, to any and all commodities.

Freight rate that is inclusive of all charges.

A second notify party to whom carrier sends its arrival notice advising of goods coming forward for delivery.

When freight appears to be free of damage so far as a general survey can determine.

A stated amount over a fixed rate to one point to make a rate to another point.

A procedure under which a neutral third party hears both sides of a matter in a dispute and issues an award that is binding upon both; also, the final step of a grievance process.

Advice that carrier sends to consignee advising of goods coming forward for delivery. Pertinent information such as BL number, container number and total charges due from consignee, etc are included and sent to consignee prior to vessel arrival. This is done gratuitously by carrier to ensure smooth delivery but there is no obligation by carrier to do so and the responsibility to monitor transit and present him to take timely delivery still rest with the consignee.

B/L Master
A document provided by the shipper after handing over the cargo to the carrier, tells the carrier how the B/L should be raised. Also known as B/L instruction or shipping instruction.

Bank guarantee
Guarantee issued by a bank to a carrier to release cargo in lieu of original bill of lading.

A symbol consisting of a series of printed bars representing values. A system of optical character reading, scanning, and tracking units by reading a series of printed bars.

Basic freight
Ocean freight excludes all charges.

A kind of customary packaging unit.

Bill of lading (B/L)
Official legal document representing ownership of cargo; negotiable document to receive cargo; contract for cargo between shipper and carrier.

Blanket waybill
A waybill covering two or more consignments of freight.

Blocking or bracing
Wood or metal supports to keep cargo in place in or on railcars.

A kind of customary packing unit.

Business Number

Movement of a tractor, without trailer, over the highway.

BONa fide
In good faith.

An acceptable , written financial guarantee required to be given to Customs to secure a transaction by specifically binding the obligatory to certain covenants for certain amounts.

Bond Port
Port of initial entry of a vessel to any country per custom’s regulations. Also known as First Port of Call.

Bonded Logistics Park (Center)
It Improves logistics between free trade zones and ports when free trade zones are isolated from the ports. Within a bonded logistics park, there are bonded warehousing, allotment and distribution, information processing, import and export trade, customs check and maintenance, commodities exhibition, and centralized Customs declaration. Import, export and distribution of the cargo do not undergo Customs check procedures of both the ports and the free trade zones. The customs process in bonded logistics parks significantly achieves the advantages of the country’s preferential policies for both the FTZ and ports.

Bonded Freight
Freight moving under a bond to U.S. Customs or to the Internal Revenue Service, and to be delivered only under stated conditions.

Bonded indemnity
A certificate filed with a carrier, relieving it from liability to which it would otherwise be subject.

Bonded warehouse
A warehouse bonded by customs authorities for storage of bonded goods prior to cargo being cleared. A facility or consolidation centre that is authorized by customs to store goods, usually separately on dutiable & non-dutiable goods, pending customs inspection and clearance. The goods in it are secured under customs custody. The payment of duties and taxes are only payable once the goods are removed. Authorized operators of bonded warehouse are often required to provide custom bond.

Arrangements with a carrier, often a steamship or airline, for the acceptance and carriage of passengers or freight.

Booking number
A reference number for booking registered. It should be unique without duplication in three years period.

Booking status
The status of booking in process from time of registration to the final stage of firm acceptance or rejection. It is composed of following status:
(a) Cancelled: rejected or voided due to no show;
(b) Confirmed: acknowledged with firm acceptance;
(c) Confirmed subject to space availability: acknowledged acceptance of booking subject to confirmation in agreed time frame;
(d) Pending: acknowledged receipt of booking yet subject to approval for acceptance.

Breakbulk (bb)
A term used to describe cargo which cannot be containerized due to its size and/or nature.

Broken stowage
The loss of space caused by irregularity in the shape of packages; any void or empty space in a container not occupied by cargo.

(a) A person who arranges for transportation of loads, usually large operations, for a percentage of the revenue from the load;
(b) In Canada, an owner-operator. (See also Customhouse Broker)

Fee paid to freight forwarder by the carrier for services performed.

Brokerage license
Authority granted by the Federal Maritime Commission to engage in the business of arranging for transportation of persons or property in interstate commerce.

Bulk carriers
A vessel carrying dry, liquid, grain, not packaged, bundled or bottled cargo, and is loaded without marks & number.

Bulk Freight
Not in packages or containers; shipped loose in the hold of a ship. Grain, coal and sulfur are usually bulk freight.

Bulk-freight container
Refers to a container with a discharge batch in the front wall; allows bulk commodities to be grasped by loading hatches.

Bull Rings
Cargo-securing devices mounted in the floor of containers; allow lashing and securing of cargo.

Bunker surcharge (BAF, BSC)
Bunker Adjustment factor (BAF), or Bunker Surcharge (BSC) are surcharges assessed by carrier to freight rates to reflect current cost of bunker.

Heavy oil used as fuel for ocean vessel.

Customs Trade Partnership Against Terrorism.
US legislative body enforcing internal physical security consciousness & awareness within carriers.

Currency Adjustment Factor. Percentage by which the rate is either increased or decreased in response to fluctuating exchange rates.

C.B.M (c.m)
Cubic meter. A measure of cargo volume

C.F. or c.b.f (Cu. ft)
Cubic Feet

Cost and insurance. A price that includes the cost of the goods, the marine insurance and all transportation charges except the ocean freight to the named point of destination.

Collect (cash) on Delivery; Carried on Docket (pricing); Change of Destination.

Container on a railway flatcar

Carriage of Goods by Sea Act

Container Freight Station (or inland terminal) Cargo movement by container between origin & destination.

Container Freight Station (or inland terminal) to Container Yard Covering cargo movement by container between origin & destination.

Container Service Charge; European THC on Transatlantic Trade

Container Security Initiative. US Government legislation designed to improve security against terrorists.

Container Yard. Point at which carrier hands over to or receive laden containers from merchant hauler. Commonly where mode of transport changes e.g. a sea port, feeder terminal, barge terminal or rail ramp.

Cargo loaded in a full container by a shipper at origin, delivered to a container freight station at destination.

(Container Yard to Container Yard) Cargo loaded by shipper in a full container at origin and delivered to carrier’s terminal at destination for pick up intact by consignee.

Capacity/Weight (Container)
Total internal container volume (LxWxD) or weight limitation.

Captain’s protest
A document prepared by the captain of a vessel on arriving at port; shows conditions en-countered during voyage, generally for the purpose of relieving ship owner of any loss to cargo and shifting responsibility for reimbursement to the insurance company.

Cargo Agent
An agent appointed by an airline to solicit and process international air freight for shipments.

Cargo Manifest
A manifest that lists only cargo, without freight and charges.

Cargo nature
The classification of cargo for special stowage arrangement.

The quantity of freight required for the application of a carload rate. (usually for transportation on rail)

Carload Rate
A rate applicable to a carload of goods.

Any of various customs documents required for crossing some international borders.

Any individual, company or corporation engaged in transporting goods.

Carrier’s lien
Right of carrier to retain property as security for charges

Usually refers to intercity hauling on drays or trucks.

Cellular vessel
A vessel designed with internal ribbing to permit the support of stacked containers.

Certificate of origin
Document certifying the country of origin of goods which is normally issued or signed by a Chamber of Commerce or Embassy.

Chargeable Weight
The weight of the shipment used in determining air freight charges. The chargeable weight may be the dimensional weight or on container shipments, the gross weight of the shipment less the tare weight of the container.

The person to whom is given the use of the whole of the carrying capacity of a ship (or aircraft) for the transportation of goods or passenger for a specified time.

A wheeled flat bed or a trailer constructed to accommodate containers moved over the road.

The renting of an entire vessel, or part of its space, for a particular trip or period of time.

A piece of wood or other material placed at the side of cargo to prevent it from rolling or moving sideways.

Clean bill of lading
A bill of lading which states that the goods have been shipped in apparent good order and condition without any qualification or remarks.

Clearance limits
The size beyond which cars or loads cannot use bridges, tunnels, etc.

Cleared without examination
Cleared by Customs

Refrigeration equipment attachable to an insulated container that does not have its own refrigeration unit.

Closing date
Last day on which export cargo can be accepted for a nominated sailing.

Collapsible container
Container with hinged or removable parts; its volume can be reduced when transported empty.

Collecting bank
A bank that acts as an agent to the seller’s bank (the presenting bank). The collecting bank assumes no responsibility for either the documents or the merchandise.

Combined transport
Carriage by more than one mode of transport against one contract of carriage.

Combined transport document (CTD)
The Combined Transport Operator’s (CTO) bill of lading.

Combined transport operator (CTO)
A carrier who contracts as a principal to perform a combined transport operation.

Commercial invoice
Represents a complete record of the transaction between exporter and importer with regard to the goods sold. Also reports the content of the shipment and serves as the basis for all other documents about the shipment.

Article Shipped

Commodity Rate
Rates of freight applied individually to articles which move regularly and in large quantities.

Common carrier
A transportation company operating under a Certificate of Convenience and Necessity; provides service to the general public at published rates.

Common tariff
A tariff published by or for two or more transportation lines.

Concealed damage
Damage that is not evident from viewing the unopened package.

Concealed Loss
Contents missing from a package that looks unopened.

An association of ship owners operating in the same trade route who agree on collective conditions and tariff rates.

Conference rate
Freight rates arrived at by a conference of carriers, generally water carriers.

Confirmed letter of credit
A letter of credit, issued by a foreign bank, whose validity has been confirmed by a domestic bank. An exporter with a confirmed letter of credit is assured of payment even if the foreign buyer or the foreign bank defaults.

Confirming bank
The bank that adds its confirmation to another bank’s (the issuing bank’s) letter of credit and promises to pay the beneficiary upon presentation of documents in compliance with the letter of credit.

Connecting carrier
A carrier that has a direct physical connection with another or that forms a link between two or more carriers.

A person or company to whom the shipment of commodities is to be consigned.

The person or company consigning a shipment to buyer that is shown on the bill of lading as the shipper.

Consolidated cargo
Usually a container of shipments of two or more shippers, shipped by a firm called a consolidator (or freight forwarder). The consolidator takes advantage of lower F.C.L. rates, and savings are passed on to shippers.

A person or firm performing a consolidation service for others.

Group of carriers pooling resources in a trade lane to maximize their resources efficiently.

Consular Declaration
A formal statement describing goods to be shipped, made to the consul of the country of destination. Approval must be obtained prior to shipment

A vehicle designed to transport cargo of many types in continuous transportation. It is also referred to a unit of packaging which is smaller in sense in which articles are packed.

Container freight station (CFS, C.F.S.)
Consolidation depots where parcels of cargo are grouped and loaded into containers.

Container gross weight
Please refer gross weight

Container load plan (CLP)
A document prepared to show all details of cargo loaded in a container, eg. Weight (individual and total), measurement, markings, shippers, consignees, the origin & destination of goods, and location of cargo within the container.

Container part load
A shipment that does not utilize the full volume of a container nor the maximum payload by weight; additional part loads may be added.

Container Size
The length of a container i.e. 20”, 40” and 45” (feet).

Container Status
The status of a container in term of location, custody and cargo status for cargo tracking use.

Container type
The purpose of a container of which the code is to be adhered to ISO standard. (such as high cube, open top, reefer etc..)

Container Load
A load sufficient in size to fill a container either by cubic measurement or by weight.

An ocean vessel specifically designed to carry ocean cargo containers. It is fitted with vertical cells for maximum capacity.

Contract carrier
Any person not a common carrier who, under special and individual contracts or agreements, transports passengers or property for compensation.

Copy B/L
Duplicate of original bill of lading and is non-negotiable.

Corner castings
Fittings on top and bottom of container corner posts; designed for handling and securing a container.

Corner posts (door posts)
Vertical frame components fitted at the corners of the container, integral to the corner fittings and connecting the roof and floor structures.

Correction memo
A kind of internal document which registers amendment to bill of lading and/or manifest after bill of lading is issued to shipper.

Cost matrix
Cost matrix is showing cost at a very basic level between two shipment points.

Credit agreement
Agreement between carrier and shipper for release of cargo with promise to pay ocean freight within specific time.

Custom house
A country Treasury Department office where duties, etc., on foreign shipments are handled.

Customer’s own transport
Customer collects from/delivers to CFS/CY.

Customhouse broker
Also known as Custom Broker. A person or firm, licensed to engage in entering and clearing goods through customs and/or the government office (Custom house) where duties and/or tolls are placed on imports or exports. The duties of a broker include preparing the entry blank and filing it; advising the importer on duties to be paid; advancing duties and other costs; and, arranging for delivery to his client, his trucking firm, or other carrier.

Customs invoice
A form requiring all data in a commercial invoice along with a certificate of value and/or a certificate of origin. Required in a few countries (usually former British territories) and usually serves as a seller’s commercial invoice.

Cut-off time
Latest possible time cargo may be delivered to vessel or designated point.

Credit agreement
Agreement between carrier and shipper for release of cargo with promise to pay ocean freight within specific time.


Dead Weight. The number of tons a ship can transport of cargo, stores and bunker fuel.

D & H
Dangerous and Hazardous. Also see Dangerous Goods.

Destination Delivery Charges. A charge assessed by the carrier for handling positioning of a full container.

Department of Transport. Government Department with responsibility for shipping and transport.

Double Stack Train. Rail or train capable of carrying two 40′ containers, one on top of the other.

Dangerous Goods
The term used by I.M.C.O. for hazardous materials which are capable of posing a significant risk to health, safety or property while being transported.

Differential Rate
An amount added or deducted from base rate to make a rate to or from some other point or via another route.

Dead Space
Space in a car, truck, vessel, etc., that is not utilized.

Dedicated Unit Train
A unit train operated by various railroads for exclusive usage.dorsement.

Delivery Order
A document authorizing delivery to a nominated party of goods in the care of a third party. Can be issued by a carrier on surrender of a bill of lading and then used by merchant to transfer title by endorsement.

Demurrage (Dem.)
Charge raised for detaining FCL container/trailer at a terminal/CY for longer period than provided in a tariff.

Disposing vessels to maximize customer satisfaction, utilization, efficiency and revenue-generating potential.

Depot, Container
Container freight station or a designated area where empty containers can be picked up or dropped off.

The place where carrier actually turns over cargo to consignee or his agent.

Charges raised for detaining container/trailer at customer’s premises for longer period than provided in Tariff.

The removal of cargo from a container. Also known as unstuffing, unloading or stripping.

The process of storing, transporting goods between the end of the production line and the final customer. It involves set of activities which demands the goods are delivered in desired quality, quantity, place & time.

A change made in the route of a shipment in transit. Also see Reconsignment.

The route of a shipment changed in transit from that shown on the original billing. Used interchangeably with reconsign.

(a) The water alongside a pier or wharf.
(b) Loading or unloading platform at an industrial location or carrier terminal.

Dock Receipt
A form used to acknowledge receipt of cargo at a steamship pier. When delivery of a foreign shipment is completed, the dock receipt is surrendered to the vessel operator or the operator’s agent and serves as basis for preparation of the ocean bill of lading.

Charge for use of a dock

Documentary Credit
The basis of international trade by means of which payment is made against surrender of specified documents.

Through transportation of a container and its contents from consignor’s premises to consignee’s premises.

Double-Deck Load
A second tier of cargo placed on top of the first tier.

A refund or remission in whole or part of a Customs duty, revenue tax, or fee lawfully assessed or collected because of a particular use made of the merchandise on which the duty, tax, or fee was assessed or collected.

A truck or other equipment designed to haul heavy loads.

Charge made for local hauling by dray or truck.

Dry Cargo
Cargo that does not require temperature control.

Dry Dock
An enclosed basin into which a ship is taken for underwater cleaning and repairing. It is fitted with watertight entrance gates which when closed permit the dock to be pumped dry.

Dry-Bulk Container
A container constructed to carry grain, powder and other free flowing solids in bulk.

Dunnage (Dge.)
Lumber or other material used to brace material in carrier’s equipment.

European Currency Units. A financial unit used for EC accounting.

Temporary refusal by a government or governments to allow goods to or from a country or location. Also a temporary suspension of trade of a particular commodity.

En route
Along the route of movement.

Estimated time of arrival / Estimated time of departure.

Expiry Date
The final date on which the draft and documents must be presented to the negotiating, accepting, paying or issuing bank to effect payment.

Shipment of goods to a foreign country

Export Declaration
A government document permitting designated goods to be shipped out of the country.

Export License
A permit required to engage in the export of certain commodities to certain destinations. Lists of such goods are found in the comprehensive Export Schedules issues by the Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Express B/L
A special facility granted by carrier under guarantees from shipper/consignee to release cargo to named consignee without presenting original B/L.

Freight All Kind. System whereby freight is charged per container, irrespective of nature of goods, and not according to a Commodity Tariff

Full Container load. Arrangement whereby shipper utilizes all the space in a container which he packs himself.

Free In and Out

Food and Drug Administration

Forty-foot Equivalent Unit (40′ or 2 Teus) F.E.U.

Federal Maritime Commission. US Government Agency responsible for regulatory aspects of all maritime activities.

Feeder Service
Sea transportation as performed by feeder operator, usually between local ports and not across oceans.

Feeder Vessel
Vessel employed in normally short sea routes to fetch or carry goods and containers to and from ocean going vessels.

Final Destination (FND)
End of carrier’s liability where carrier delivers the cargo to consignee.

Flash Point
The temperature reaching which for certain inflammable cargo will trigger spontaneous ignition. It is an IMCO standard information requirement for dangerous goods.

Freight Forwarder
He is neither a consignor nor a carrier. Known also as Freight Forwarder, Foreign Freight Forwarder. It’s an individual or business that dispatches shipments by land, air, or sea, or it may specialize for exporters and for a fee. Usually it handles all the services in the collection, consolidation, shipping and distribution of goods connected with an export shipment; preparation of documents, booking cargo space, warehouse, pier delivery and export clearance. The firm may also handle banking and insurance services on behalf of a client. The U.S. forwarder is licensed by the Federal Maritime Commission for ocean shipments.

Free Trade Zone
A predetermined area or region declared and secured by or under governmental authority where certain operations may be performed with respect to articles without such articles having entered into the commerce of the country maintaining the free trade zone.

(a) The price paid to the carrier for the transportation of goods or merchandise by sea from one place to another.
(b) Freight is also used to denote goods which are in the process of being transported from one place to another.

Treatment with a pesticide active ingredient that is a gas under treatment conditions.

General Agreement on Tariff and Trade. An international multilateral agreement embodying a code of practice for fair trading in international commerce.

Port at which container is discharged from ocean vessel to start the inland or intermodal part of its journey.

General Average
General average is a non-statutory, international maritime law which is universally recognized and applied. It is founded on the principle that vessel and goods are parties to the same venture and share exposure to the same perils, which may require sacrifice or the incurring of extraordinary expense on the part of one for the benefit of the whole venture.

General Order
Issued by U.S. Customs as notice of intention to seize goods.

Genset (Generator Set)
A portable power generator, which converts fuel into electrical power by mechanical means, and from which a reefer draws power. A clip-on generator set is mounted to the front of the refrigeration unit. An underslung generator set is mounted to the chassis upon which the reefer is mounted for handling and transport.

Garments on Hangers

The front rails of the chassis that raise above the plane of the chassis and engage in the tunnel of a container.

General Rate Increase

Gross Tonnage
Applies to vessels, not to cargo. Determined by dividing by 100 the contents, in cubic feet, of the vessel’s closed-in spaces. A vessel ton is 100 cubic feet.

Gross Weight
Entire weight of goods, packaging and container,ready for shipment.

A consolidation service, putting small shipments into containers for shipment.

Hague Ruleses
1924 International Convention on Carriage of Goods by Sea. These rules govern liability for loss or damage to goods carried by sea under a bill of lading.

Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System
A multi-purpose international goods-classification for manufacturers. Transporters, exporters, importers, customs officials, statisticians, and others in classifying goods moving in international trade under a single commodity code. Developed under the auspices of the Customs Cooperations Council (CCC), an international customs organization in Brussels, this code is a hierarchically structured product nomenclature containing approximately 5,000 headings and subheadings describing the articles moving in international trade. It is organized into 99 chapters arranged in 22 sections. Sections encompass an industry [ (e.g., Section XI, Textiles and Textile Articles); chapters encompass the various materials and products of the industry (e.g.: Chapter 50, Silk; Chapter 55, Manmade Staple Fibres; Chapter 57, Carpets).] The basic code contains four-digit headings and six-digit subheadings. (The U.S. will add digits for tariff and statistical purposes. In the U.S. duty rates will be the 8-digit level; statistical suffixes will be at the 10-digit level. The Harmonized System (HS) is scheduled to supplant the current U.S. tariff schedule (TSUSA) in January 1988.)

The opening in the deck of a vessel; gives access to the cargo hold.

The participating carrier responsible for drayage.

heavy Lift
Articles too heavy to be lifted by a standard ship’s tackle.

heavy lift Charge
A charge made for lifting articles too heavy to be lifted by a ship’s tackle.

High Cube
Any container which exceeds 8 feet 6 inches (102 inches) in height, usually 9 feet 6 inches.

house B/L
Bill of Lading issued by forwarded

A facility in the infrastructure where transport-related services (collection & distribution) and commercial activities are performed, and it focuses on logistics-centre management, facilities management, maintenance and supply chain.

International Air Transport Association. The trade and service organization for airlines of more than 100 countries serving international routes.

IATA Cargo Agent
It is also a type of freight forwarder who specializes in air cargo. They are registered with the International Air Transport Association ( (IATA). It is very typical that an IATA Cargo Agent also performs the function of an Air Freight Forwarder in reserve booking for air freight, issue air waybill.

Interstate Commerce Commission. The U. S. governmental body to regulate interstate trade.

Interim Fuel Participation. Similar to BAF, a surcharge based on the cost of bunker.

International Maritime Consultative Organization. A forum in which most major maritime nations participate and through which recommendations for the carriage of dangerous goods, bulk commodities and maritime regulations become internationally acceptable.

International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code. The IMO recommendations for the carriage of dangerous goods by sea.

Shipment of goods from a foreign country.

Import License
A document required and issued by some national governments authorizing the importation of goods into their individual countries.

Import Permit
Usually required for items that might affect the public health, morals, animal life, vegetation, etc. Examples include foodstuffs, feedstuffs, pharmaceuticals (human and veterinary), medical equipment, seeds, plants and various written material (including tapes, cassettes, movies, TV tapes or TV movies). In some countries an import permit is the same as an import license.

Inward bound. Direction of vessel or cargo going to port of discharge or final destination.

Insulated Container
A container insulated on the walls, roof, floor and doors, to reduce the effect of external temperatures on the cargo.

Insulated Tank Container
The frame of a container constructed to hold one or more thermally insulated tanks for liquids.

An insurance policy or certificate normally covers the shipments of merchandise from the time they leave the warehouse at the shipping point until they reach the destination point named in the policy or certificate.

Insurance Certificate
Where the seller provides ocean marine insurance, it is necessary to furnish insurance certificates, usually in duplicate. The certificates are negotiable documents and must be endorsed before submitting them to the bank. The seller can arrange to obtain an open cargo policy that the freight forwarder maintains.

Insurance With Average-Clause
This type of clause covers merchandise if the damage amounts to 3 percent or more of the insured value of the package or cargo. If the vessel burns, sinks, collides, or gets sunk, all losses are fully covered. In marine insurance the word average describes partial damage or partial loss.

Insurance, All-Risk
This type of insurance offers the shipper the broadest coverage available, covering against all losses that may occur in transit.

Insurance, Particular-Average
A Marine insurance term to refer to partial loss on an individual shipment from one of the perils insured against, regardless of the balance of the cargo (in this way it differs from general-average insurance).

International Chamber of Commerce
A Paris-based international forum that aims to facilitate trade.

Institute Cargo Clauses
The institute of London Underwriters standard clauses for cargo insurance.

Inland Points Intermodal. Inland carriage by another mode of transportation after discharge.

International Shipping & Port Security. International anti-terrorist legislation organised by IMO.

Transfer of a container from one party to another.

Interchange Points
A terminal at which freight in the course of transportation is delivered by one transportation line to another.

Used to denote movements of cargo or container between motor, rail or water carriers.

Intermodal Transport
Moving ocean freight containers by various transportation modes. The fact that the containers are of the same size and have common handling characteristics permits them to be transferred from truck to railroad to air carrier to ocean carrier.

Interstate / Intrastate
Between states / Within a state.

Inventory Shrinkage
Losses of inventory resulting from scrap, damage, theft

Issuing Bank
The bank that has issued or opened a letter of credit. Also known as Opening Bank.

Just in Time ( (JIT)
Manufacturing model developed by the engineer Taiichi Ohno at Toyota to monitor and control the production system to eliminate all waste due to intermediate stocks and poor quality. Production is thus equal to demand at all stages of the process.

A unit of speed. The term “knot” means velocity in nautical miles per hour whether of a vessel or current. One nautical mile is roughly equivalent to 1.15 statute miles or 1.85 kilometres.

Less than Container Load. Cargo in quantity less than required for the application of a full container load rate.

More often known as “Consolidator”. Their business focuses on providing services related to consolidate parts or smaller consignments, LCL (Less than Container Load) cargoes into larger unit. (NVO = Non Vessel Operator)

Letter of Credit
(a) Back-to-Back: A secondary letter of credit issued to a beneficiary on the strength of a primary credit;
(b) Clean: A letter of credit that requires the beneficiary to present only a draft or a receipt for specified funds before receiving payment;
(c) Confirmed: A revolving letter of credit that permits any amount not utilized during any of the specified periods to be carried over and added to the amounts available in subsequent periods;
(d) Deferred Payment: A letter of credit issued for the purchase and financing of merchandise, similar to acceptance-type letter of credit, except that it requires presentation of sight drafts payable on an installment basis;
(e) Irrevocable: An instrument that, once established, cannot be modified or cancelled without the agreement of all parties concerned;
(f) Non-cumulative: A revolving letter of credit that prohibits the amount not used during the specific period to be available in the subsequent periods;
(g) Restricted: A condition within the letter of credit which restricts its negotiation to a named bank;
(h) Revocable: An instrument that can be modified or cancelled at any moment without notice to and agreement of the beneficiary, but customarily includes a clause in the credit to the effect that any draft negotiated by a bank prior to the receipt of a notice of revocation or amendment will be honored by the issuing bank;
(i) Revolving: An irrevocable letter issued for a specific amount; renews itself for the same amount over a given period;
(j) Straight: A letter of credit that contains a limited engagement clause addressed to the beneficiary; state that the issuing bank promises to pay upon presentation of the required documents at its counters or the counters of the named bank;
(k) Transferable: A letter of credit that allows the beneficiary to transfer in whole or in part any amount of the credit to one or more third parties provided that the aggregate of such transfers does not exceed the amount of the credit.
(l) Unconfirmed: A letter of credit forwarded to the beneficiary by the advising bank without engagement on the part of the advising bank.

Letter of Indemnity
Guarantee from shipper to indemnity carrier for costs and/or loss, if any, in order to obtain favorable action by carrier, e.g. sometimes, it is used to allow consignee to take delivery of goods without surrendering B/L which has been delayed.

A legal claim upon goods for the satisfaction of some debt or duty.

Transportation from one city to another as differentiated from local switching service.

Vessel plying a regular trade/defined route against a published sailing schedule.

Liner Terms
They define the condition / responsibility of cost under which a carrier has had at port of loading to port of discharge. As such they also determine the freight / charges payable for loading & discharging the cargo from the vessel in their quotation, according to the customs of the port and it is not internationally codified. Carrier cost responsibility under respective Liner Terms:
Liner In Liner Out ( CY to CY ) –
Carrier bears the costs for loading at loading port, sea voyage up to cargo discharged at discharging port.
Liner In Hook Out ( CY to Hook) –
Carrier bears the costs for loading at loading port, sea voyage up to cargo alongside cargo hook at discharging port.
Hook In Liner Out ( Hook to CY) –
Carrier bears the costs for cargo alongside cargo hook at loading port, sea voyage up to cargo discharged at discharging port.
Liner In Free Out (CY to Free Out, LIFO) –
Carrier bears the costs for loading at loading port, sea voyage and exclude costs for cargo at discharging port.
Free In Liner Out (Free in to CY, FILO) –
Carrier bears the costs for sea voyage and costs for cargo discharged at discharging port.
Hook to Hook –
Carrier bears the costs for sea voyage and costs for cargo alongside at loading port & at discharging port.
Hook to Free Out –
Carrier bears the costs for cargo alongside cargo hook at loading port, sea voyage and exclude cost at discharging port.
Free In to Hook –
Carrier bears the costs for sea voyage and costs for cargo alongside cargo hook at discharging port.
Free In Free Out (FIFO) –
Carrier bears the costs for sea voyage and exclude costs at loading port & discharging port.

Lloyds’ Registry
An organization maintained for the surveying and classing of ships so that insurance underwriters and others may know the quality and condition of the vessels offered for insurance or employment.

Lift On, Lift Off. Surcharge for handing equipment over to merchant haulier in UK.

Load Factor
Percent of loaded containers against total capacity of vessel or allocation.

Locking Bar
Device that secures container doors at top and bottom.

The management of moving or stationary inventory.

Individual employed locally in a port to load and unload ships.

A trailer or semi-trailer with no sides and with the floor of the unit close to the ground.

Motor Vessel

Minimum Quantity Commitment. Volume of cargo that a customer commits to ship over the duration of their contract (in TEU)

(a) Metric Ton or Cubic meter;
(b) Empty container;
(c) Multimodal Transport.

Document that lists in detail all the bills of lading issued by a vessel or its agent or master, i.e., a detailed summary of the total cargo of a vessel. Used principally for customs purposes. It is also called summary of Bills of lading.

Manifest, Traveling
A manifest of all cargoes aboard a conveyance, vessel, truck or rail, that lists cargoes to be discharged at each port of call. The manifest must be aboard at the vessel’s first port of call. Corrections must be made at the first port regardless of the destination of the cargo. Manifest is certified by customs and travels with the vessel through the remainder of its ports of call in the same country.

Business pertaining to commerce or navigation transacted upon the sea or in seaports in such matters as the court of admiralty has jurisdiction over.

Marks & Nos.
Marks & Numbers placed on packages (or Bills of Lading) for export for identification purposes; generally a triangle, square, circle, diamond, or cross with letters and/or numbers and port discharge.

Maximum Payload
Maximum cargo that can be loaded into a container either by weight or volume.

Maximum rate
The highest freight rate permitted by a regulatory body to apply between points.

Measurement Ton
1 cubic meter (CBM). One of the alternative bases of Freight Tariff.

Memo B/L
An internal B/L created for certain purposes, e.g. memo B/L created to replace original B/L used in case of spliting B/L at request of consignee.

A landbridge movement in which cargo originating/destined to an inland point is railed or trucked to/from the water port for a shipment to/from a foreign country. The carrier is responsible for cargo and costs from origin to destination. Also known as I.P.I. and Through Service.

Distance in miles

Mini Landbrudge (MLB)
An intermodal system for transporting containers from/to a foreign country by water to/from a U.S. ocean port other than the arrival port by rail at through rates and documents.

Cargo moving from/to an inland destination on one bill of lading from/to a foreign port through two U.S. ports.

Minimum Charge
The lowest charge that can be assessed to transport a shipment.

Multimodal Transport
See Combined Transport. A preferred term by UNCTAD for Combined Transport.

Not Otherwise Specified

negotiable B/L/L
Original bill of lading endorsed by shipper that is used for negotiating with banks.

Negotiating Bank
A bank named in the credit; examines the documents and certifies to the issuing bank that the terms are complied with.

net Tonnage
A vessel’s gross tonnage minus deductions of space occupied by accommodations for crew, by machinery, for navigation, by the engine room and fuel. A vessel’s net tonnage expresses the space available for passengers and cargo.

net Weight
Weight of the goods alone without any immediate wrappings, e.g., the weight of the contents of a tin can without the weight of the can. Also called actual net Weight.

Non-negotiable B/L
Copy of original bill of lading which cannot be negotiated with bank.

Non-Vessel Operating Common Carrier (NVOCC)
In the United States, it is a term for a cargo consolidator of shipments who is licensed by FMC in ocean trade, generally arranging for or performing consolidation and containerization functions. In trade lanes that do not include the U.S.A., NVOCC operate under different rules and governmental licensing may not be a requirement.
(a) A cargo consolidator of small shipments in ocean trade, generally soliciting business and arranging for or performing containerization functions at the port.
(b) A carrier issuing Bs/L for carriage of goods on vessel which he neither owns nor operates.

Ocean Bill of Lading (Ocean B/L)L)
Document indicating that the exporter will consign a shipment to an international carrier for transportation to a specified foreign market. Unlike an inland B/L, the ocean B/L also serves as a collection document. if it is a Straight B/L the foreign buyer can obtain the shipment from the carrier by simply showing proof of identity. If a negotiable B/L is used, the buyer must first pay for the goods, post a bond or meet other conditions agreeable to the seller.

Ocean Route
The all water transportation portion of a route.

On Board
Means that cargo has been loaded on board a combined transport mode of conveyance. Used to satisfy the requirements of a letter of credit, in the absence of an express requirement to the contrary.

On Board B/L
A B/L in which a carrier acknowledges that goods have been placed on board a certain vessel.

Other Governmental Departments

On Deck
A special stowage instruction to confine the cargo stowage must be on deck rather than under deck.

Open-Top Container
A container fitted with a solid removable roof or with a tarpaulin roof that can be loaded or unloaded from the top.

Location where shipment begins its movement at cargo’s expense.

Original Bill of Lading (O.B.L.)
A document which requires proper signatures for consummating carriage of contract.

Outward bound. Direction of vessel or cargo going out from port of loading or point/place of receipt.

An excess of quantity billed.

Overheight Cargo
Cargo stowed in an open-top container; projects above the uppermost level of the roof struts.

A container with goods protruding beyond the sides of the container/flat rack onto which they are packed.

Packing Listst
Usually issued in conjunction with a supplier’s invoice detailing the types of merchandise, size and quantity per shipping unit.

A platform (usually two-deck), with or without sides, on which a number of packages or pieces may be loaded to facilitate handling by a lift truck.

Panama Canal Act
A federal law regarding railroads and the ownership of water carriers with whom they compete.

Partial Shipments
Under letters of credit, one or more shipments are allowed by the phrase”partial shipments permitted.” In bulk shipments a tolerance of 3 percent is allowed.

Payable Elsewhere
Special service to shipper or consignee to receive freight and charges at location and from designated party as specified by shipper or consignee i.e. freight and charges are not received at loading end (for Prepaid shipment) and discharging end (for Collect shipment).

The revenue-producing part of the cargo.

Per Diem
A charge made by one transportation line against another for the use of its equipment. The charge is based on a fixed rate per day.

Perils of the Sea
Those causes of loss for which the carrier is not legally liable. The elemental risks of ocean transport.

Perishable Cargo
Cargo subject to decay or deterioration

Phytosanitary Inspection Certificate
A certificate issued by the US Department of Agriculture to satisfy import regulations of foreign countries indicating that a US shipment has been inspected and is free from harmful pests and plant diseases.

The structure to which a vessel is secured for the purpose of loading and unloading cargo.

The transportation of highway trailers or demountable trailer bodies on specially equipped railcars.

The act of stealing cargo. Place of Receipt Location where cargo enters the care and custody of carrier.

Power of Attorney. Authority given by the first party to the second party to act for the first party. For example, when carriers give power of attorney to an agent to publish tariffs for those carriers.

Pool (Container)
A common supply of containers available to the shippers.

(a) Harbor with piers or docks;
(b) Left side of a ship when facing the bow;
(c) Opening in a ship’s side for handling freight.

Port of Arrival
Location where imported merchandise is off loaded from the importing aircraft or vessel.

Port of Call
Port where a steamer discharges or receives traffic.

Port of Discharge
Port of Discharge where cargo is discharged from vessel. In case of transshipment is needed, there can be a number of POD during the course of shipment until it reaches the final POD.

Port of Entry
Port where cargo actually enters a country where the cargo is not part of its commerce.

(Port of Loading) Port where cargo is loaded to vessel.

(Point or Place of Receipt)
Starting point of carrier’s liability where cargo is received from shipper and under carrier’s custody for transportation to final destination.

Power Pack
An electricity power source for multiple reefer boxes. It serves as standby or prime power for intermodal applications including rail, port, ship, and barge.

A process employed in the shipment of citrus fruits and other perishable commodities. The fruit is packed and placed in a cold room from which the heat is gradually extracted. The boxes of fruit are packed in containers that have been thoroughly cooled and transported through to destination without opening the doors.

Prepaid (Ppd.)
One of the payment status where freight and charges are required to be paid by shipper before original bill of lading is released to them except for shipment under Sea Waybill (or Express BL) as no original bill of lading is required or for shipment under credit arrangement.

P.T.I (Pre-trip Inspection)
A procedure of checking the ability of a reefer to maintain temperature control. The inspection normally focuses on the operation of the refrigeration and heating equipment, as well as the physical condition of the refrigeration plant and the insulated container shell. Such inspections are normally performed prior to each loading of a reefer.

(a) A legal means of proving presentation and default of a negotiable instrument, as well as providing notice to interested parties that the instrument was not paid.
(b) A declaration made by the master of a vessel before a notary public in the United States and Great Britain or a tribunal of commerce on the European Continent, or before the consul of the country from which the vessel hails if in a foreign port, on arrival in port, when, through stress of weather, it has not been practicable to adopt ordinary precaution in the matter of ventilation for perishable cargoes; when the condition of the cargo or any part thereof at the time of shipment is such as to lead to the belief that damage or some further damage has occurred during the voyage; when any serious breach of a charter party by the charterer in a foreign port happens; when a vessel experiences bad weather while at sea and when the master has reason to believe that the cargo is damaged or part of the deck load lost overboard. Copies of the protest are frequently demanded underwriter in the event of a claim. Protest are received as evidence in tribunal on the Continent but they cannot be made use of as evidence in courts of law in the United Kingdom in favor of the party making the protest except by the consent of both parties concerned.

The setting aside of items from availability for use or sale until all required quality tests have been performed and conformance certified.

Quarantine buoy
One of the yellow buoys at the entrance of a harbour indicating the place where vessel must anchor for the exercise of quarantine regulations.

Quarantine declaration
A document signed by the captain and the ship’s doctor before the port health officer when a ship arrives at the quarantine station. It gives the name of the ship, tonnage, number of crew, first port of voyage and date of sailing, intermediate ports called at , number of passenger for the port at which the vessel is arriving, number of transit passengers, cases of infectious diseases during voyage, deaths, nature of cargo, name of agents. The port health officer then proceeds with the medical inspection of passengers and crew. Also called entry declaration.

Quarantine dues
A charge against all vessels entering a harbor to provide for the maintenance of medical control service. Also called quarantine fees.

Quarantine flag
A yellow flag used as a sanitary signal. It is displayed by all vessels entering a harbor; also when a contagious or infectious disease exists on board or when the vessel has been placed in quarantine.

Quarantine harbor
A place where vessels in quarantine are stationed when arriving from contaminated ports.

Quarantine signal
Signals flown by vessel required to show their state of health. By day “Q” of the international code signifies “Ship is healthy-free pratique requested”. Flag “Q” over first substitutes signifies that the ship has had cases of infectious diseases or that there has been unusual mortality among rats on board. Flag “Q” over “L” signifies “Ship is infected”. By night a vessel entering harbor exhibits a red light over a white light more than 6 feet apart which signifies that the ship is awaiting free pratique.

Quarantine station
A medical control center located in an isolated spot ashore where patients with contagious diseases from vessel in quarantine are taken. It is also used for passengers and crews of vessel arriving from suspected ports while fumigation or any other disinfection is carried out on board ship.

Quay rent
Cost levied by a terminal for laden container storage. Can either be billed to the carrier as its customer or direct to the shipper.

The quantity of goods that may be imported without restriction or additional duties or taxes.

Rail Onboard B/L/L
This is unique practice in NAT having the similar function as onboard vessel B/L. In the event of multimodal B/L is prepared, shipper can request a clause on the B/L to satisfy their commercial transaction as LADEN ONBOARD RAIL MMDDYY. The date on the B/L is on which containers are loaded onboard rail flat car. However, the word RAIL is not necessary.

Rail terminal where containers are either loaded or discharged from train. (A railhead is a CY)

Rail terminal where containers are either loaded or discharged from a train (A rail Ramp is a CY)

Receipt for shipment B/L
A term used in contradistinction to shipped bill of lading, which is the standard document. Some bankers object to such bill of lading on the ground that the security they offer is imperfect. This kind of bill of lading is normally issued to acknowledge receipt of shipment before cargo loading or before official original bill of lading is issued. Nowadays, not many shippers ask for this kind of bill of lading.

Reconsignment (R/C)
Changing the consignee or destination on a bill of lading while shipment is still in transit. Diversion has substantially same meaning.

In the industry, it is the generic name for a temperature controlled container. The containers, which are insulated, are specially designed to allow temperature controlled air circulated within the container. A refrigeration plant is built into the rear of the container.

To transfer goods from one ship to another of the same ownership.

Release Note
Receipt signed by customer acknowledging delivery of goods.

revenue ton (R/T)
The greater weight or measurement of goods where 1 ton is either 1000 kilos or 1 cubic metre (for metric system). Also known as bill of lading ton or freight ton. It is used to calculate freight charge.

Roll-On/Roll-Off (Ro/Ro)
A feature designed in a specially constructed vessel in both the loading and discharging ports, to allow drive on or off of overland vehicles.

route (rte.)
The manner in which a shipment moves, i.e., the carriers handling it and the points via which they handle it.

Standard Export Declaration. Legal document that shippers or freight forwarder have to complete prior to export from USA.

Standard Shipping Note. Paperwork completed by a UK shipper which accompanies the container on its journey to the port of exit. This is so that receiving authorities liket the carrier & port receive clear and precise information on how the goods should be handled.

Said to Contain. A standard clause used to protect carrier for cargo stuffed by shipper or its agents.

Salvage Loss
A loss which it is presumed would, but for certain services rendered, have become a total loss. The charges incurred are “salvage charges”. The property salved is the “salvage”. When referring to goods a salvage loss is one resulting from shipwreck or from a situation where, by the peril of the sea, the vessel is prevented from proceeding on her voyage and the cargo, or the part that is saved is obliged to be sold at a place short of the port of destination. The term is used in marine insurance when at a point short of destination, it can be shown that it would cost more to forward damaged goods to their destination than the goods would realized on the spot. The underwriters usually pay the difference between the total insured value and the net proceeds of the goods, such a settlement being known as a “salvage loss”.

Seal (Container)
Metal strip and lead fastener or locking device used for locking freight car or truck doors. Seals are numbered for record purposes.

Seal Record
A record of the number, condition and marks of identification on seals made at various times and places, referring to the movement of the container between origin and destination.

Service Contract
As provided in the Shipping Act of 1984, a contract between a shipper (or a shippers’ association) and an ocean common carrier (or conference) in which the shipper makes a commitment to provide a certain minimum quantity of cargo or freight revenue over a fixed time period, and the ocean common carrier or conference commits to a certain rate or rate schedule as well as a defined service level (such as assured space, transit time, port rotation or similar service features). The contract may also specify provisions in the event of nonperformance on the part of either party.

Ship Chandler
An individual or company selling equipment and supplies for ships.

Shipped bill of lading
A bill of lading issued only after the goods have actually been shipped on board the vessel, as distinguished from the received for shipment bill of lading. Also see on board bill of lading.

Shipped on board
Endorsement on a bill of lading confirming loading of goods on vessel.

The person for whom the owners of a ship agree to carry goods to a specified destination and at a specified price. Also called consignor. The conditions under which the transportation is effected are stipulated in the bill of lading.

Shipper owned container
The container used for cargo shipment is owned by shipper.

Shipper’s Export Declaration
A custom house form filled by the shipper of goods. to foreign countries. Also called shipper’s manifest. It mentions the marks, numbers, quantity, description an value of the goods at time and place of export. There is a different definition in USA as “The shipper’s export declaration (SEDs) forms 7525-V and 7525-V-Alternate (Intermodal) and the shipper’s export declaration for In-Transit Goods, Form 7513, are JOINT-BUREAU OF THE CENSUS- INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION DOCUMENTS used for compiling the official U.S. export statistics and administering the requirements of the Export Administrative Act.

Shipper’s Load & Count
Shipments loaded and sealed by shippers and not checked or verified by the carriers.

Shipping permit
Issued by a shipping or carrier company; authorizes the receiving clerk at pier, dock, warehouse, airport or on board to receive a stipulated amount of goods or materials from a specified firm.

Shipside Delivery
A special cargo handling instruction for cargo to be delivered right away at shipside after discharge.

Short Term Lease
Short term lease refers to Master lease (with or without free-day), direct interchange and sublease from TGA/VSAO/Canmar partner as well as Free-use from any other logistic companies.

Goods not carried on intended vessel.

Space on board a vessel occupied by a container.

A piece of equipment designed to lift containers by their corner castings.

The force that holds a vessel upright or returns it to upright if keeled over. Weights on the lower hold increase stability. A vessel is stiff if it has high stability, tender if it has low stability.

Stack Car
An articulated five-platform railcar that allows containers to be double stacked. A stack car holds ten 40-foot equivalent units.

Stack Train
See DST (Double Stack Train).

Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)
A standard numerical code used by the U.S. government to classify products and services.

Standard International Trade Classification (SITC)
A standard numerical code used by the United Nations to classify commodities used in international trade.

Terminal operator who is designated to facilitate the operation of loading and discharging vessels and various terminal activities.

A Charge made on property stored.

A marine term referring to loading freight into ships’ holds.

Straight Bill of Lading
A term for a non negotiable bill of lading. In the U.S. the Pomerene Act governs its operation.

The unloading of a container.

The loading of a container.

Supply chain management
The delivery of enhanced customer and economic value through synchronized management of the flow of physical goods, services and associated information from sourcing through consumption. The management of the process and activities to provide the flow of products, services and information to customers.

Supply air
Cooled or warmed air leaving the evaporator delivered to the interior of the container. Supply air is sometimes called delivery-air.

An extra or additional charge.

Interior floor in a reefer, so named because of the longitudinal T-shaped rails which support the cargo and form a plenum for air flow beneath the cargo.

Trailer on flatcar; Piggyback. The movement of cargo on a railroad flatcar.

Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit (20’) T.E.U.

Terminal Handling Charge. A charge assessed by the terminal for handling FCLs at ocean terminals.

Terminal receiving Charge. Charge assessed by the terminal for cargo being delivered for export.

Tank Container
A specially constructed container for transporting liquids and gases in bulk.

Tare Weight
The weight of packing material or, in carload shipments, the weight of the empty freight car.

Tariff (trf.)
A publication setting forth the charges, rates and rules of transportation companies.

The offer of goods for transportation or the offer to place cars for loading or unloading.

An assigned area in which containers are prepared for loading into a vessel or are stacked immediately after discharge from the vessel.

Third PArty Logistics (3PL)
A third-party logistics provider (abbreviated 3PL) is a firm that provides outsourced or “third party” logistics services to companies for part, or sometimes all of their supply chain management function. Third party logistics providers typically specialize in integrated warehousing and transportation services that can be scaled and customized to customer’s needs based on market conditions and the demands and delivery service requirements for their products and materials.

Through Rate
The total rate from the point of origin to final destination.

Through Service (thru service)
A combination of transportation by sea and land (Thru Service) services to/from the West Coast. From West Coast locations, freight is transported by rail and/or truck to central or eastern North America non water port cities. Also known as Micro bridge Service and I.P.I.

Generally refers to freight handled.

A freighter vessel that does not run in any regular line but takes cargo wherever the shippers desire.

To transfer goods from one transportation line to another, or from one ship to another.

Transit cargo
Goods onboard which upon their arrival at a certain port are not to be discharged at that port.

Transit Port
A port where goods received are merely en route and from which they have to be transferred and dispatched to their ultimate destination by coasters, barge and so on. Also called transshipment port.

Truck Onboard B/L
This is unique practice in NAT having the similar function as onboard vessel B/L. In the event of multimodal B/L is prepared, shipper can request a clause on the B/L to satisfy their commercial transaction as LADEN ONBOARD TRUCK MMDDYY. The date on the B/L is on which containers are picked up by ROE House trucker from shipper’s facility. However, the word TRUCK is not necessary.

In water transportation, the time it takes between the arrival of a vessel and its departure.

Two-Way Pallet
A pallet so designed that the forks of a forklift truck can be inserted from two sides only.

United States Department of Agriculture.

Unit Load
Packages loaded on a pallet in a crate or any other way that enables them to be handled at one time as a unit.

U.L.D (Unit Load Device)
Term commonly used when referring to containers and pallets.

Unit Train
A train of a specified number of railcars, perhaps 100, wherein they remain in a unit for a designated destination or until a change in routing is made.

The consolidation of a quantity of individual items into one large shipping unit for easier handling; Loading one or more large items of cargo onto a single piece of equipment, such as a pallet.

Value Added Tax (VAT)T)
Is a consumption tax levied on value added. In contrast to sales tax, VAT is neutral with respect to the number of passages that there are between the producer and the final consumer; where sales tax is levied on total value at each stage, the result is a cascade.

Value Chain
A series of activities, which combined, define a business process; the series of activities from manufacturers to the retail stores that define the industry supply chain

Ventilated Container
A container designed with openings in the side and/or end walls to permit the ingress of outside air when the doors are closed.

Vessel’s Manifest
Statement of a vessel’s cargo (revenue, consignee, marks, etc.).

Voyage Number
The numeric identification of a round trip sailing of a vessel on a fixed trade lane.

A place for the reception and storage of goods.

Warehouse Management System (WMS)
Computer application, and components of SCE packages, with the goal of managing and optimizing warehouse operations.

War Risk Insurance
Seperate insurance covering for losses which result from any acts of war. This insurance is necessary during peacetime due to objects, such as floating mines, left over from previous wars.

Warsaw Convention
An international multilateral treaty which regulates, in a uniform manner, the conditions of international transportation by air. It establishes the international liability of air carriers and establishes the monetary limits for loss, damage, and delay.

Waybill (WB)
A document prepared by a transportation line at the point of a shipment; shows the point of the origin, destination, route, consignor, consignee, description of shipment and amount charged for the transportation service. A waybill is forwarded with the shipment or sent by mail to the agent at the transfer point or waybill destination. Abbreviation is WB. Unlike a bill of lading, a waybill is not a document of title.

Weight Cargo
A cargo on which the transportation charge is assessed on the basis of weight.

Wharfage (whfge.)
Charge assessed by a pier or dock owner against freight handled over the pier or dock or against a steamship company using the pier or dock.

Technology for determining a vehicle’s weight without requiring it to come to a complete stop.

Yard Management System ( (YMS)
A system which is designed to facilitate and organize the coming, going and staging of trucks and trucks with trailers in the parking “yard” that serves a warehouse, distribution or manufacturing facility.

Zone of Reasonablenessss
A zone or limit within which air carriers are permitted to change rates without regulatory scrutiny; if the rate change is within the zone, the new rate is presumed to be reasonable.